The finance and accounting module is the most important ERP module because it allows businesses to understand their current financial state and future outlook. Key features of this module include tracking accounts payable (AP) and accounts receivable (AR) and managing the general ledger. It also creates and stores crucial financial documents like balance sheets, payment receipts and tax statements.
The finance module can automate tasks related to billing, vendor payments and account reconciliation, helping the accounting department close the books in a timely manner and comply with current revenue recognition standards. It also has the data that financial planning and analysis employees need to prepare key reports, including profit and loss (P&L) statements and board reports, and run scenario plans.
The procurement module, also known as the purchasing module, helps an organization secure the materials or products it needs to manufacture and/or sell goods. Companies can keep a list of approved vendors in this module and tie those suppliers to certain items. The module can automate requests for a quote, then track and analyze the quotes that come in.
Once a company accepts a quote, the procurement module helps the purchasing department prepare and send out purchase orders. It can then track that purchase order as the seller turns it into a sales order and ships the goods, automatically updating inventory levels once the order arrives.
The earliest version of ERP, material requirements planning (MRP) systems, were designed for manufacturers, and manufacturing remains a key piece of ERP. Today, ERP systems typically have a production management or manufacturing execution system (MES). The manufacturing module helps manufacturers plan production and make sure they have everything they need for planned production runs, like raw materials and machinery capacity. During the manufacturing process, it can update the status of goods-in-progress and help companies track actual output against forecasted production. It also provides a real-time picture of the shop floor, capturing real-time information on items in progress and finished goods. It can calculate the average time to produce an item and then compare supply with forecasted demand to plan adequate production.
The inventory management module enables inventory control by tracking item quantities and location down to individual SKUs. This module offers a complete picture of not only current but also incoming inventory, through an integration with the procurement tool. This piece of software helps businesses manage inventory costs, making sure they have sufficient stock without tying up too much cash in inventory. An inventory management application can weigh sales trends against available product to helps companies make informed decisions that boost margins and increase inventory turn (a measure of how often inventory is sold over a certain period). It can help prevent stockouts and delays, which enhances customer service.
Businesses that lack other supply chain management modules may also use the inventory management application to handle purchase orders, sales orders and shipping. Larger organizations will need a version of this solution that can track inventory across multiple locations.
A warehouse management module can deliver a rapid return on investment for businesses that operate their own warehouses. This application can efficiently guide warehouse employees through all warehouse processes based on the layout of the facility, from putaway when shipments arrive to picking to packing and shipping. It can also help companies plan labor based on expected order volume. The warehouse management module can support different picking strategies like batch picking, wave picking and zone picking depending on which is most efficient for a given business, and some modules can show employees the most efficient pick path.
When the warehouse management module is integrated with inventory management and order management applications, employees can quickly find the right products and get shipments out the door quickly. Faster delivery ultimately increases customer satisfaction.
Supply Chain Management
A supply chain management module tracks each step in the movement of supplies and goods throughout the supply chain, from sub-suppliers to suppliers to manufacturers to distributors to retailers or consumers. It can also manage any materials or products returned for refund or replacement.
As noted earlier, supply chain management can include a wide array of modules like procurement, inventory management, manufacturing, order management and warehouse management. However, it may have functionality beyond the core capabilities of those modules
Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
The customer relationship management (CRM) module stores all customer and prospect information. That includes the company’s communication history with a person—the date and time of calls and emails, for example—and their purchase history. A CRM improves customer service because staffers can easily access all the information they need when working with a customer.
Many businesses also use CRM to manage sales leads and opportunities. It can track communication with prospects and suggest which customers should be targeted for certain promotions or cross-sell opportunities. More robust CRM modules may support customer segmentation (enabling more targeted marketing) and advanced contact managers and reporting tools.
Human Resources Management (HRM)
A human resource management (HRM) or human capital management (HCM) module usually encompasses all the features of workforce management application and offers additional capabilities. HRM could be viewed as CRM for employees. This popular module has detailed records on all employees and stores documents like performance reviews, job descriptions and offer letters. It tracks not only hours worked but also paid time off (PTO)/sick days and benefits information.
Since the HRM module stores a vast amount of information on every employee across the organization, it eliminates a lot of duplicate or inaccurate data that many organizations store in various spreadsheets.